The 1st Tennessee Infantry Regiment (Turney's) was organized April 29, 1861 with men from Grundy, Coffee, Franklin, Bedford, Moore, and Lincoln counties. It was mustered into Confederate service May 8, 1861 at Lynchburg, VA. It fought in all of the major battles in Virginia from Seven Pines to Appomattox where it surrendered 8 officers and 30 men.
The Official Records of this regiment were filed as 1st (Turney's) Tennessee Infantry Regiment. This unit was called 1st Confederate Infantry and should not be confused with 1st (Maney's) Tennessee Infantry that served in the western Army of Tennessee. It was mustered directly into the service of the Confederate States, as Tennessee had not yet seceded, and was also known as 1st Tennessee Volunteer Infantry (Provisional Army).
Flag of Turney's 1st Tennessee Captured at Gettysburg July 3 1863
Photographed in The Tennessee State Museum, Nashville
|Lt Colonels||James H. Holman
James C. Shackleford
Newton J. George
|Majors||Daniel W. Holman
Martin V. McLaughlin
Newton J. George
|A||Pelham Guards||Grundy & Coffee Counties||Alex E. Patton|
Joseph A. Lusk
Jesse R. Gunn
|B||Tullahoma Guards||Franklin & Bedford Counties||John E. Bennett|
William S. Daniel
|C||Mountain Boys||Winchester, Franklin County||Miller Turney|
Samuel H. Estill
|D||Ridgeville Hornets||the part of Franklin that became Moore County||Littleberry N. Simpson|
William J. Awalt
John H. Bevill
|E||Lynchburg Rangers||the part of Franklin that became Moore County||Dr. Ezekiel Y. Salmon, |
Thomas H. Mann
William P. Tolley
Owen J. Bailey
|F||Salem Invincibles||Franklin County||Clem Arledge|
James H. Thompson
John D. Bell
|G||Fayetteville Guards||Lincoln County||Benjamin F. Ramsey|
John C. Shackleford
Felix G. Buchanan
Davis W. Clark
|H||Shelton's Creek Volunteers||Lincoln County||Jacob Cruse|
Newton J. George
Young T. Stubblefield
Thomas P. Arnold
Thomas B. George
or The Cowan Guards
|Coffee County||Joseph Holder|
Henry J. Hawkins
|K||Boon's Creek Minute Men||Lincoln County||Newton C. Davis|
Jacob B. Turney
Practically simultaneously with the holding of a mass meeting in Winchester on February 24, 1861, at which Franklin County petitioned to be allowed to secede from Tennessee and join Alabama, then a Confederate State, Peter Turney commenced the organisation of a company in Winchester, which was later to become "C" Company. Shortly thereafter, other companies were formed in and around Winchester and in the neighbouring counties of Coffee and Grundy. Quickly after the fall of Fort Sumter came the formation of four other companies to complete the regiment. On April 21, Colonel Turney reported to the Confederate War Department that his regiment was organised, although without weapons, under Colonel Peter Turney, Lieutenant Colonel James H. Holman and Majors Pierce B. Anderson and Daniel W. Holman.
On April 28, the regiment was assembled at Winchester, bivouacking on the grounds of Mary Sharp College.
On May 1, it departed by rail for the Virginia theatre. Six companies arrived at Lynchburg, Virginia, on May 5; the remainder of the regiment shortly thereafter.
On May 8, the regiment was mustered into service for twelve months at Lynchburg, Virginia. The eleventh company was disbanded and distributed among the remaining ten to conform with regulations, and an election was held to decide which of the two majors would be kept. Major Holman won, and Major Anderson left the regiment to command an artillery battery.
On May 17, the regiment was moved by rail to Richmond, where it went into training camp, to be drilled by the detachment of cadets from the Virginia Military Institute.
On June 1, the regiment moved by rail to Harper's Ferry, there to be under the command of Brig. General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson.
On June 8, rhe regiment voted in favor of Tennessee seceding from the Union.
In July, it was moved to the locale of Manassas and, for the Battle of First Manassas (July 21), was part of the 3rd Brigade (Bernard E. Bee), Johnston's Division, and double-timed the six miles to the battlefield but arrived at the end of the battle.
During August & September, the regiment remained in the Manassas area when General William Whiting took over the brigade after General Bee died of his Manassas wound.
About September 30, the regiment moved to duty along the Potomac, between Occoquan and Aquia Creeks, before going into winter quarters at Dunfries.
On January 10, 1862, it was part of the task force of Brig. General William H.C. Whiting, at Dumfries, Virginia.
On February 9, the regiment was placed under the command of Maj. General Theophilus H. Holmes, commanding the Aquia District.
At the same time, the 1st Tennessee Infantry (Maney), 2nd Tennessee Infantry (Bate), and 3rd Tennessee Infantry (J.C. Vaughn), were detached from the Army of Northern Virginia and returned to the Tennessee Theatre, leaving the 1st Confederate Infantry, the 7th Tennessee Infantry, and the 14th Tennessee Infantry as components of a brigade which was to serve, with minor changes from time to time, during the rest of the war, and which was to become known as the Tennessee Brigade, Army of Northern Virginia.
On March 8, 1862, organisation of the Tennessee Brigade was announced. It's first commander was Brig. General Samuel R. Anderson; his headquarters were at Evansport, now Quantico, Virginia. The brigade was assigned to the division of Brig. General William H.C. Whiting.
Under General Anderson, the brigade entered the Peninsular Campaign as part of A.P. Hill's "Light Division" of Magruder's Corps. It's initial position was about midway between the York and James Rivers.
On April 27, the regiment was reorganised. Lt. Colonel James Holman and Major Daniel Holman were dropped in the army's reorganization along with most of the company officers. John C. Shackleford of Company G was elected lieutenant colonel and Captain Martin V. McLaughlin of Company H was elected major.
In May, the regiment moved to near Yorktown on the Peninsula. General Anderson was relieved from active field service by reason of ill health (he was 58 years old and was serving in his second war), and the brigade command passed to Brig. General Robert H. Hatton, formerly colonel of the 7th Tennessee Infantry.
On May 31, at the Battle of Seven Pines, the 1st Tennessee lost 85 men in 15 minutes in a charge that drove the enemy from the field. General Hatton was killed and Brig. General James J. Archer took command of the brigade and was to retain command with several absences until January, 1865. Under him the brigade was to make it's reputation.
On June 11, the regiment was transferred with the rest of Archer's Brigade to A. P. Hill's Division.
Between June 25 to July 1, as part of the Fifth (Archer's) Brigade, A.P. Hill's "Light Division", Magruder's Corps, the regiment participated in the Seven Day's Battles before Richmond, losing 99 men.
On June 27, at Gaines' Mill, the regimental flag was captured by the 13th New York Infantry. Lieutenant Colonel Shackleford and Major McLaughlin were killed and Captain Felix Buchanan was wounded.
Captain Newton J. George of Company H was promoted to lieutenant colonel and Captain Felix G. Buchanan of Company G was promoted to major.
On July 27, Maj. Gen. A.P. Hill's division, including Archer's Brigade, was attached to the II Corps (Thomas J. Jackson), Army of Northern Virginia, and participated in Jackson's Valley Campaign
On August 9, at the Battle of Cedar Mountain, the regiment lost 24 men.
On August 28, at the battle of Second Manassas, the regiment lost 57 men.
In September, the regiment, still in the II Corps, took part in the Maryland Campaign, fighting at Harper's Ferry, Sharpsburg, and Shepherdstown.
On September 6, the regiment crossed the Potomac.
On September 7, the regiment went into bivouac near Frederick, Maryland.
Between September 11-14, the regiment marched to Williamsport, crossed the Potomac into Virginia, then continued to Martinsburg and Harpers Ferry.
Between September 14-16, the regiment took part in the capture of Harpers Ferry.
On September 17, the regiment made a forced march from Harpers Ferry to join the Battle of Sharpsburg, arriving at 4 p.m. to counter-attack the Union left flank. Colonel Turney temporarily commanded the brigade until reaching the battlefield, when General Archer resumed command and Turney returned to the regiment.
On September 19-20, the regiment crossed the Potomac back into Virginia, then skirmished with Union forces trying to force a crossing of the Potomac at the Battle of Shepherdstown.
On December 13, at the Battle of Fredericksburg, the regiment lost 57 men. Colonel Turney sustained the wound which removed him from active command; a year later he was to take over a semi-administrative command in Florida. Major Buchanan was wounded. Lt. Colonel Newton J. George took over command of the regiment.
On May 3 1863, at the Battle of Chancellorsville, the regiment was commanded by Lt. Colonel George, in Archer's Brigade , II Corps, and lost 58 men.
By June 1, the regiment was assigned to Archer's Brigade of Heth's Division in the newly-created Third Corps under A.P. Hill after the fall of Jackson at Chancellorsville.
On July 1-3, the regiment took part at the Battle of Gettysburg, commanded by Lt. Colonel George with 281 men in the field. It lost 16 men killed, 67 wounded and 95 missing.
On July 1, the regiment took part in the initial heavy fighting against Buford's dismounted Cavalry and the Iron Brigade of Reynold's 1st Corps. General Archer was captured during the fighting and Colonel Birkett D. Fry took over the command of his brigade whilst General James Johnston Pettigrew took over command of Heth's Division.
On July 3, the regiment was on the left flank during the Pickett–Pettigrew–Trimble Charge. The 1st and 7th Tennessee Infantry Regiments made it to the stone wall north of The Angle and breached the Federal lines, but were unable to hold their position and paid a high price; the Brigade Commander, the Regimental Commander, a large number of other officers and enlisted men, and the colors of the 1st and 14th Regiments, were captured by the 14th Connecticut Infantry.
On July 4, at night, the regiment retreated as part of A.P. Hill's Corps.
Between July 7-13, the regiment and the Corps formed the army's rear guard in a defensive battle line between Williamsport ford and Falling Waters pontoon bridge. The survivors of Archer's Brigade were at this time assigned to Pettigrew's Brigade.
on July 14, after having marched all night of the 13th, Hill's Corps, with Pettigrew's and Archer's Brigades bringing up the rear. Before Archer's Brigade was able to cross over the Potomac at the Falling Waters pontoon bridge, they were attacked whilst many were still asleep by a squadron of Federal Cavalry; the First Tennessee Regiment fought back with clubbed guns as there was no time to load them, giving the other regiments in the brigade time to get organised and bring the skirmish to a quick favourable conclusion. Few of the Federal cavalrymen escaped, the rest were annihilated. The Corps was then able to cross the Potomac back into Virginia. During the rear guard action General Pettigrew was mortally wounded.
The former brigades of Archer and Field were combined under the command of Brigadier General Henry H. Walker. The consolidated brigade consisted of the 40th, 47th, 55th and 22nd Virginia Infantry, in addition to the 1st, 7th and 14th Tennessee, the 5th Alabama Battalion and the 13th Alabama Infantry. Major Felix G. Buchanan continued to command the 1st Tennessee during their participation in the actions of the Army of Northern Virginia throughout the remainder of 1863; these included the Mine Run Campaign and the Battle of Bristoe Station.
Winter 1863/1864. Walker's Brigase was detached from the ANV and sent to defend the Shenandoah Valley where they went into winter quarters,
May 5-7 1864, the regiment took part in the Battle of the Wilderness, where Major Buchanan was wounded.
May 12-21, the regiment took part in the Battle of Spotsylvania Courthouse, where General Walker was severely wounded. being replaced by Brig. General Birkett Fry, who had been wounded and captured at Gettysburg, eventually paroled and now promoted from Colonel to Brig. General.
On June 3, the regiment took part in the Battle of Cold Harbor, when Captain William S. Daniel commanded the regiment.
On June 9th, Brig. General Birkett Fry, who had been severely wounded in the thigh at Gettysburg and subsequently exchanged as a prisoner of war, had sufficiently recovered and he was assigned to the temporary command of both Walker's and Archer's Brigades. General Archer himself, was still in prison on Johnson's Island. Major Felix Buchanan was in charge of the First Tennessee.
By August, 1864, Colonel George had returned to command the regiment. During the nine and a half months siege of Petersburg, Heth's Division, which included Archer's Brigade, was on the extreme right flank of Hill's Corps. Heth's Division would be moved to attack any attempt by the Federals to extend their left flank and fighting would go on almost continuously in one form or another.
Between August 18-21, the regiment was involved in the Battle of Globe Tavern (Weldon Railroad), where Major Buchanan was wounded.
On August 19, General Archer briefly returned to his old command. the illnesses brought on by his long confinement at Johnson's Island shortly forced his retirement. His health finally collapsed after the Battle of Peeble's Farm, and he died in Richmond on October 24, 1864 at the age of 46. James Jay Archer is buried in Hollywood Cemetery in Richmond.
On October 31, Colonel Robert Mayo took command of the brigade, followed by Colonel William McComb of the 14th Tennessee
In January, 1865, consolidation of the diminished strength of the Army of Northern Virginia brought about the formation of Archer's and Johnson's Brigade, still in Heth's Division of the III Corps. Beside this regiment were it's old companions of the original Tennessee Brigade, the 7th and the 14th Tennessee Infantry, plus the 2nd Maryland Infantry Battalion, the 17th/23rd Tennessee Infantry, the 25th/44th Tennessee Infantry, and the 63rd Tennessee Infantry.
April 1865. Withdrawing toward Appomattox early in April, the newly consolidated Tennessee Brigade came under the command of Brig. General William McComb; Major Felix G. Buchanan was now in command of the regiment. This was the composition of the brigade as it passed out of existence with Lee's Surrender.
On April 9, 1865, the 1st Tennessee Infantry Regiment surrendered 8 officers and 30 men under Major Buchanan at Appomattox.